Published Research, Posters, Symposia and Articles



Leadership development program for healthcare faculty improves subject matter knowledge regardless of gender or faculty rank

Physician Leadership Journal (Submitted for publication) Dawson K, Farroni PS;  English E, Friedman AM; Satiani, B.

  • Study conducted with the Faculty Leadership Insitute (FLI) at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center measuring knowledge acquisition across faculty participants
  • All post-session mean knowledge scores were significantly higher than their pre-session scores
  • Change management training results in particular competency gains

Personality Assessment and Physician Leadership: Data-Driven Self-Reflection as a Professional Developmental Tool

Physician Leadership Journal (Submitted for publication) Fletcher KA, Hassan M, Friedman AM, Zuckerman JD.

  • By understanding their relatively stable personality traits, physician leaders can become more intentional about their own leadership process, thereby becoming more effective leaders.
  • Provide insight into the role personality traits play in the leadership process, and the value of data-driven self-reflection as a tool for professional development for physician leaders.
  • Review leadership theories as well as the science of personality, and then provide a method of data-driven self-reflection, accompanied by examples of the efficacy of this method in the varied contexts of orthopaedic surgery.

Building Physicians with Self-Awareness

Physician Leadership Journal  2017;4(3):40-44.Randall RM, Kwong L, Kuivila T, et al.

  • Working with 75 residents from three orthopaedic surgery residency programs, Harbor UCLA, Rush Health and Cleveland Clinic.
  • Examined the need for an evolution toward a contemporary , team-facilitated, leadership approach.
  • Residents communicated the value of self-awareness tools and training to better understand and improve performance and leadership.

Continuous Leadership Education and Development at the San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium

Military Medicine, 2017;182(7):1624-1627.Bowe SN, Jones WS.

  • SAUSHEC is emphasizing leadership development with self-awareness as an integral component of emotional intelligence and enhanced interprofessional collaboration.
  • SAUSHEC Leadership Development Initiative included faculty and residents, across multiple specialties, completing an assessment, receiving the J3P Professional Practice Guide, participating in leadership development sessions and using the data for on-going mentoring.
  • The manuscript highlights personal accounts of the value of the initiative.

Personality Assessment and Self-Reflection: Tools to Improve Orthopaedic Leadership

Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, The Orthopaedic Forum: 20 February 2019 - Volume 101 - Issue 4 - p. e13 Tornetta P III, Jacobs, J, Sterling R, Kogan M, Fletcher K, Friedman AM.

  • Personality assessments are used effectively in many industries outside of the medical profession
  • There is evidence that demonstrates that these tools have promise to match candidates to specific fields of medicine, mentoring residents and developing improved leadership in the field of orthopaedic surgery

Transformational and Transactional Leadership in Healthcare Seen Through the Lens of Pediatrics 

Journal of Pediatrics,  2019; Volume 204 , 7 - 9.e. Fletcher KA, Friedman AM, Piedimonte G.

  • Reviews the link between leadership styles and personality theory for pediatric team and unit leaders and provides practical interventions designed to improve physician leadership.
  • Suggests that physician leadership look toward personality assessment experts and tools to guide self-reflection and prepare self-aware leaders.

An Introduction to Leadership Self-Assessment at the Society of Neurological Surgeons PGY1 Bootcamp: Observations and Commentary

Neurosurgery,  2017;80:201-204, Hunt MA, Heilman CB, Shutran M, Wu JK.

  • 35 neurosurgical residents participated in the Society of Neurological Surgeons – Post Grad Year 1 Boot Camp, including leadership development training with a focus on new ACGME non-clinical competencies.
  • Only 1 in 5 of residents report that they get adequate guidance from mentors on leadership.
  • Leadership development efforts can help with transformational leadership.
  • Discusses the role of self-assessment, awareness and personality traits and tendencies.

Orthopaedic Education: Mentorship in Surgical Training: Can Personality Assessment Help?

Clin Orthopaedics and Related Research2016;474:1125-1128 Tornetta,  P III, Bogdan, Y.

  • Using the J3P “Transition to Practice Guide” to improve mentorship and communication between residency program director and chief resident
  • Explores using personality assessment as a resource for mentors to manage residents who are struggling. 

Developing Physicians to be Leaders: Our Lives May Depend on It

Podium Presentation: Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology; April 19-21, 2018; Chicago, IL Harvey VP, Evans S, Friedman AM, Mazzenga J & Shanley TP.

Testing the Effectiveness of a Leadership Program for Early Career Physician Leaders in an Academic Medical Institution

Podium Presentation: The Ohio State University, Fisher College of Business, Leadership Initiative Academic Conference; February 22, 2018; Columbus, OH. Satiani B, Fletcher KA, Friedman AM, Binkley P.

Healthcare Leaders Adopt Techniques to Develop Proficiency in Collaboration Through Feedback and Reflection

Submitted, Archdeacon MT, Smith I, Adams D, Friedman AM.

  • Summarizes programs at U. of Cincinnati College of Medicine’s Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, and with high potential clinical leaders at Mount Sinai Health System.
  • These programs focus on self-awareness as the foundation of leadership with data-drive assessment, training and coaching programs.
  • The programs suggest improvements in individual performance, leadership and professional collaboration.

Introduction to the J3P Healthcare Leader Wellness Assessment- a Part of the Solution

Podium Presentation: American Association for Physician Leaders, Physician Leadership Summit, April 27, 2018; Boston, MA. Roloff K & Friedman, AM.


Adding Long-Term Value to the Residency Selection and Assessment Process

The Laryngoscope, 2019, Villwock, J. A., Bowe, S. N., Dunleavy, D., Overton, R,. Sharma, S., and Abaza, M.
• Summary of innovative approaches to residency selection in competitive specialties
• Customized reporting utilized in nationally ranked otolaryngology programs

Personality Factors Associated with Resident Performance: Results from 12 ACGME Accredited Orthopaedic Surgery

Journal of Surgical Education, 2018 Jan - Feb;75(1):122-131. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2017.06.023. Epub 2017 Jul 5Phillips D, Egol KA, Maculaitis MC, Roloff KS, Friedman AM, Levine B, Garfin S, Schwartz A, Sterling R, Kuivila T, Paragioudakis SJ, Zuckerman JD.

  • A validation study establishing that personality assessment can predict residency performance.
  • The traits that faculty value, often differ from those actually associated with performance.

Correlation of Personality Assessments with Standard Selection Criteria for Neurosurgical Residency Applicants

Journal of Neurosurgery 2016;125:986-994 Lubelski D, Healy AT, Friedman A, Ferraris D, Benzel EC, Schlenk R.

  • Explores the correlation between personality scores and other residency selection criteria, including USMLE Score, publications and class rank.

What Makes Us Tick: Implications of Personality Differences Among Otolaryngology Residents and Faculty

The Laryngoscope 2018, doi:10.1002/lary.27727 Villwock, J. A., Bowe, S. N., Rotich, D. C., Beltramo, A. , Friedman, A. and Kraft, S. M.

    • Looking at 104 residents and 78 faculty from nine otolaryngology programs.
    • Identifies potential implications for mentoring, communication, education and professional development.

Using Organizational Science to Improve the Resident Selection Process: An Outsider's Perspective

Am. J. Med. Qual.,2016;31:486-488. Friedman AM.

  • Summary of the failings of the traditional residency selection approach and proposing that personality assessment shows promise for improving the resident selection process, especially in light of recent ACGME requirements for mastery of competencies such as interpersonal communication and professionalism.

Investigating the Role of Personality-Based Behavioral Assessments in the Residency Match Process

Podium Presentation: American Orthopaedic Association Council of Orthopaedic Residency Directors; June 24-25, 2016; Seattle, WA. Bartels DW, Levine B, Frank R, Zuckerman JD, Friedman AM.

  • Individual evaluation of medical students’ personalities may allow for identification of applicants who have the best overall fit with the profile of an individual program

Poster Presentation: Annual Meeting of the Mid-American Orthopaedic Association; April 13-17, 2016; Bonita Springs, FL.

  • On 9 scales applicants matched the “ideal profile”
    Assessing Resident Fit Across Specialties: Implications for

Resident Professional Development and Performance

Poster Presentation: Annual Symposium of the American Academy of Family Physicians; March 24-28, 2017; Kansas City, MO. Pallay R, Maculaitis MC, Quinlan JD, Kim G, Friedman AM.

  • Family Medicine and Orthopaedic surgery profiles largely overlapped suggesting similar characteristics may be relevant for successful performance across these specialties.
  • Gaps between the profile and resident self-report may help identify areas of focus for professional development.

Personality Assessments Predict Resident Performance on Orthopaedic Surgery Core Competencies

Podium Presentation: Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology; April 27-29, 2017; Orlando, FL. Roloff K, Maculaitis MC, Terrazas JMB, Friedman AM, Connolly P.

  • Personality scales predict all five outcome variables: Interpersonal skills, Professionalism, Practice-based learning, System-based practice and Overall performance.

Using Personality Assessment to Predict Program Fit and Rank List Position

Poster Presentation: Annual Association for Hospital Medical Education Conference; May 18-20, 2016; Fort Lauderdale, FL Timoney N, Ferraris D, Maculaitis MC, Friedman AM, Pittman T.

  • Measures of applicant’s personality tendencies distinguished between those who were on the final “rank list” and those who were not
  • Certain tendencies could be used to populate final “rank list


Self-Awareness, Medical School, Residency and Career Success

Podium Presentation: American Medical Student Association (AMSA) Annual Convention; March 7-10, 2019; Crystal City, VA Carr, R., Reich, S.M., Shapiro, J., Smith, S. & Warren, B.

The “Big 5” and the “4 E’s”: Personality Predictors of Communication Ratings on the Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Among Orthopaedic Surgery Residents

Journal of Surgical Education (Submitted for publication)Phillips D, Maculatis MC, Friedman AM, Zuckerman JD, Holmes KS. Manuscript

  • Personality traits can predict empathic patient communication effectiveness.
  • Provides a foundation for using personality assessment as a tool to improve physician communication skills.

Identifying the Emergency Medicine Personality: a Multisite Exploratory Study

AEM Educ Train. 2018 Apr; 2(2):91-99. PMID: 30051075. Jordan J, Linden JA, Maculatis MC, Hern HG, Schneider JI, Wills CP, Marshall JP, Friedman A, Yarris LM.

  • Looking at the personality traits of 140 emergency medicine residents across five nationally ranked programs.
  • Under stress, emergency medicine residents may be risk averse

The Orthopaedic Personality - Does it Exist?

Manuscript, Boston Medical Center McApline K, Tornetta P, Friedman AM, Maculatis MC.

Poster Presentation: Annual Meeting of the American Orthopaedic Association; June 20-24, 2017; Charlotte, NC.

Gender and Personality in Emergency Medicine Residents

Poster Presentation: Academic Assembly, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, March 31-April 3, 2019, Seattle, WA.Jordan J, Linden JA, Maculatis MCH, Gene Hern H Jr, Schneider JI, Willis CP, Marshall JP, Friedman A, Yarris LM.

  • Compared to opposite sex counterparts, male EM residents may be more likely to engage in strategic behavior and be socially proactive, whereas female EM residents may have a greater tendency to behave in an organized and dependable manner.

Self-Awareness: a Tool to Build Resiliency in the Future Primary Care Workforce

Symposia: Annual Spring Conference of the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM); May 5-9, 2018; Washington, D.C. Kelly CM, Pallay R, Friedman AM.

  • Presented on importance of self-awareness of personality characteristics for burnout prevention for students and residents.
  • Identify tools that can be used at medical institutions to gain self-awareness and models that have been piloted.
  • Develop action steps that educators, administrators, residents, and students can take back to their institution to incorporate self-awareness into their curriculum.

Personalities in Orthopaedics: What Can We Do with Them?

Symposia: Annual Meeting of the American Orthopaedic Association; June 20-24, 2017; Charlotte, NC. Tornetta P III, Jacobs J, Sterling R, Friedman AM.

• Presentation of selection and development behavioral assessments and strategies for orthopaedic surgical residents and practicing faculty members.


Personality Assessment Utilization is Changing Organized Neurosurgery to Improve Patient Satisfaction, Quality and Safety Initiatives and Physician Leadership

Congress Quarterly, The Congress of Neurological Surgeons, Fall, 2018 Alan Friedman

Demystifying Self-Awareness in Healthcare – Assessment Tool Provides Objectivity, Competitive Edge for Residency Candidates

New Physician, American Medical Student Association, January- February, 2017

Self-Awareness: The Ladder to Leadership Success

Chief Learning Officer, CLO Media, 2017, Joseph D. Zuckerman, MD, Alan Friedman, and Mekayla Castro